Ooh, Ahh... The Language of Traffic Engineers...
Thanks for doing your homework q`Tzal!
I'm going to use this in my next email...
Section 2C.64 Object Markers for Obstructions Within the Roadway
01 Obstructions within the roadway shall be marked with a Type 1 or Type 3 object marker. In addition to markers on the face of the obstruction, warning of approach to the obstruction shall be given by appropriate pavement markings (see Section 3B.10).Option:
02 To provide additional emphasis, a Type 1 or Type 3 object marker may be installed at or near the approach end of a median island.Standard:
03 To provide additional emphasis, large surfaces such as bridge piers may be painted with diagonal stripes, 12 inches or greater in width, similar in design to the Type 3 object marker.
04 The alternating black and retroreflective yellow stripes (OM3-L, OM3-R) shall be sloped down at an angle of 45 degrees toward the side on which traffic is to pass the obstruction. If traffic can pass to either side of the obstruction, the alternating black and retroreflective yellow stripes (OM3-C) shall form chevrons that point upwards.Option:
05 Appropriate signs (see Sections 2B.32 and 2C.25) directing traffic to one or both sides of the obstruction may be used instead of the object marker.
Section 2C.65 Object Markers for Obstructions Adjacent to the Roadway
01 Obstructions not actually within the roadway are sometimes so close to the edge of the road that they need a marker. These include underpass piers, bridge abutments, handrails, ends of traffic barriers, utility poles, and culvert headwalls. In other cases there might not be a physical object involved, but other roadside conditions exist, such as narrow shoulders, drop-offs, gores, small islands, and abrupt changes in the roadway alignment, that might make it undesirable for a road user to leave the roadway, and therefore would create a need for a marker.Standard:
02 If a Type 2 or Type 3 object marker is used to mark an obstruction adjacent to the roadway, the edge of the object marker that is closest to the road user shall be installed in line with the closest edge of the obstruction.Guidance:
03 Where Type 3 object markers are applied to the approach ends of guardrail and other roadside appurtances, sheeting without a substrate shall be directly affixed to the approach end of the guardrail in a rectangular shape conforming to the size of the approach end of the guardrail with alternating black and retroreflective yellow stripes sloping downward at a angle of 45 degrees toward the side of the obstruction on which traffic is to pass.
04 Type 1 and Type 4 object markers shall not be used to mark obstructions adjacent to the roadway.
05 Standard warning signs in this Chapter should also be used where applicable.
Section 3B.10 Approach Markings for Obstructions
01 Pavement markings shall be used to guide traffic away from fixed obstructions within a paved roadway. Approach markings for bridge supports, refuge islands, median islands, toll plaza islands, and raised channelization islands shall consist of a tapered line or lines extending from the center line or the lane line to a point 1 to 2 feet to the right-hand side, or to both sides, of the approach end of the obstruction (see Figure 3B-15).Figure 3B-15 Examples of Applications of Markings for Obstructions in the Roadway
02 See Chapter 3E for additional information on approach markings for toll plaza islands.Guidance:
03 For roadways having a posted or statutory speed limit of 45 mph or greater, the taper length of the tapered line markings should be computed by the formula L = WS. For roadways where the posted or statutory speed limit is less than 45 mph, the formula L = WS2/60 should be used to compute the taper length.Support:
04 Under both formulas, L equals the taper length in feet, W equals the width of the offset distance in feet, and S equals the 85th-percentile speed or the posted or statutory speed limit, whichever is higher.Guidance:
05 The minimum taper length should be 100 feet in urban areas and 200 feet in rural areas.Support:
06 Examples of approach markings for obstructions in the roadway are shown in Figure 3B-15.Standard:
07 If traffic is required to pass only to the right of the obstruction, the markings shall consist of a two-direction no-passing zone marking at least twice the length of the diagonal portion as determined by the appropriate taper formula (see Drawing A of Figure 3B-15).Option:
08 If traffic is required to pass only to the right of the obstruction, yellow diagonal crosshatch markings (see Section 3B.24) may be placed in the flush median area between the no-passing zone markings as shown in Drawings A and B of Figure 3B-15. Other markings, such as yellow delineators, yellow channelizing devices, yellow raised pavement markers, and white crosswalk pavement markings, may also be placed in the flush median area.Option:
09 If traffic can pass either to the right or left of the obstruction, the markings shall consist of two channelizing lines diverging from the lane line, one to each side of the obstruction. In advance of the point of divergence, a wide solid white line or normal solid double white line shall be extended in place of the broken lane line for a distance equal to the length of the diverging lines (see Drawing C of Figure 3B-15).
10 If traffic can pass either to the right or left of the obstruction, additional white chevron crosshatch markings (see Section 3B.24) may be placed in the flush median area between the channelizing lines as shown in Drawing C of Figure 3B-15. Other markings, such as white delineators, white channelizing devices, white raised pavement markers, and white crosswalk markings may also be placed in the flush median area.
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